Modern Psychological Studies
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Place of Publication
This study investigated sex-trait stereotypes across two nations, the United States and Spain. Past research by Williams & Best (1990) examined gender-stereotyping within the same countries with children, and a more recent study by Best & Williams (D. L. Best, personal communication, November 25, 1991) surveyed 100 students from each of 25 countries. Male characteristics were found to be more socially desirable than those identified as characteristic of women and were rated higher by both males and females. Although the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) has been widely used in the United States in measuring traits considered either masculine or feminine, few studies have examined gender-stereotyping between these countries using the BSRI. 751 male and female students from the United States and Spain enrolled in introductory psychology classes completed surveys. The surveys described a female (Joan, Juana) or a male (John, Juan), and students rated the individual on the 60 BSRI adjectives. For the feminine items, females were rated higher than males on many of the adjectives in the United States, but females were rated similar to males in Spain. On the masculine items, males were rated higher than females on only six items and this effect was consistent for both the United States and Spain. This suggested that in the United States females were perceived as having masculine traits but males were not perceived as having feminine traits. This was not true in Spain where it appeared there was greater androgyny. Future research might focus on why there is an increase in androgyny for females but not for males in the United States.
BF1 .M63 v. 1 no. 1 1992
"Gender and sterotyping in the United States and Spain,"
Modern Psychological Studies: Vol. 1
, Article 12.
Available at: http://scholar.utc.edu/mps/vol1/iss1/12