Modern Psychological Studies
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Place of Publication
This paper offers a possible explanation for the paradoxical relations for two of psychology's 19th century female pioneers with faculty members in their graduate programs: Margaret F Washburn and James M. Cattell at Columbia University; and Mary W. Calkins and Hugo Munsterberg at Harvard University. Cattell's and Munsterberg's strong support and advocacy for these female graduate students appear contradictory to their general beliefs regarding women's intellectual capacities and pursuit of higher education. However, it is suggested that their views were, in fact, consistent with the variability hypothesis, which drew a sharp distinction between "average" and "exceptional" women. It is further suggested that Munsterberg's and Cattell's endorsement of the variability hypothesis may have increased their willingness to advocate equal educational opportunities for Calkins and Washburn.
BF1 .M63 v. 11 no. 1 2005
Hudson, Ginger and Elliott, Ann N.
"The impact of the variability hypothesis on Margaret F. Washburn's and Mary W. Calkins' parodoxical relations with faculty in their graduate programs,"
Modern Psychological Studies: Vol. 11
, Article 2.
Available at: https://scholar.utc.edu/mps/vol11/iss1/2