Modern Psychological Studies
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Place of Publication
This study examines the extent to which males and females conform to gender schemas regarding outward appearance and clothing styles. Participants were observed from a distance in various natural settings and were coded based on estimated age, hair length, certain clothing choices, and certain jewelry and accessory choices. We found statistically significant gender differences (with p <.0001) for all characteristics, with the codes for hair length, earrings, and dresses showing the strongest discrepancies. These data showed a pattern of males being more confined to strict gender displays than were females, which can be seen particularly clearly in the wearing of earrings and dresses, as males rarely deviated from the socially acceptable gender signals. These findings imply that the feminist movement loosened feminine standards for dress and appearance; lacking a similar social movement, men remain more strictly confined to traditional displays of gender.
BF1 .M63 v. 17 no. 1 2011
Lindemuth, Caroline J.; Thomas, Lindsey A.; Mates, Hadley A.; and Casey, Jenessa A.
"Gender patterns in dress and outward appearance: an individual choice or fulfillment of cultural expectations?,"
Modern Psychological Studies: Vol. 17:
1, Article 5.
Available at: https://scholar.utc.edu/mps/vol17/iss1/5