Modern Psychological Studies
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Place of Publication
Results from previous evaluations of athletic wearables infused with Aqua Titanium have been mixed with respect to ergogenic effectiveness. This might be due to exclusive reliance on group designs in previous studies. The purpose of our study was to evaluate and compare the individual and group differences in responsiveness to an Aqua-Titanium necklace. Using a single-subject (reversal) design, we measured the running speed of 10 healthy adults across baseline (no necklace), test (Aqua-Titanium necklace) and placebo conditions using a 61-m indoor track. The entire sample was then considered for group analyses. Results showed that our single-subject and group analyses produced similar outcomes, and that these outcomes provided little evidence to support the ergogenic effectiveness of the Aqua-Titanium necklace.
Weber, Nathan A.; Machado, Mychal A.; and Wood, Duane D.
"Effects of an Aqua-Titanium Necklace on Running Speed when Examined at the Individual and Group Levels,"
Modern Psychological Studies: Vol. 25:
2, Article 11.
Available at: https://scholar.utc.edu/mps/vol25/iss2/11