University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Place of Publication
The goal of this research was to assess the effectiveness of outdoor therapy on depression and anxiety across different moderators via a quantitative review. While there are studies that look at the effectiveness of outdoor therapy on psychological outcomes, there is a lack of synthesis of the research investigating moderators. A literature review was conducted and six studies were included in the analysis. Cohen’s d was calculated for each study. We examined the following moderators: intervention type, intervention duration, age, and outcome measurement. The effects of outdoor therapy were greater for anxiety (d=0.65, n=1215) than depression (d=0.43, n=115). Within the anxiety results, the average effect size for adolescents (d=0.75, n=979) was greater than the adult effect size (d=0.27, n=236).
Wheeler, Lindsey N. and Wininger, Steven R.
"The effects of outdoor therapy on depression and anxiety: a quantitative review,"
Modern Psychological Studies: Vol. 28:
2, Article 4.
Available at: https://scholar.utc.edu/mps/vol28/iss2/4