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In compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800/51 FR 31115, September 2, 1986) an archaeological survey of part of the Citico Site was undertaken during December and January of 1990 by the Jeffrey L. Brown Institute of Archaeology, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (hereafter "the Institute"). The project sponsor was the City of Chattanooga. Part of this well-known Mississippian site, called the Citico Site and designated as 40HA65 in the Tennessee State Site Files, was scheduled for development that would take two forms: (1) a proposed 48" sewer main pipeline that was to be placed next to an existing line and (2) the construction of an associated pumping station. Site 40HA120, a Cherokee interment camp, was also listed as endangered by this construction. The hookup of a pipeline on the right bank of the Tennessee River at Mile 465.1 is part of this same project, and it threatens 40HA210, a multicomponent prehistoric site. Archaeological surveys of all potentially effected areas were recommended by the Tennessee Historical Commission to determine if undisturbed cultural deposits associated with the previously recorded or currently unknown sites were present. Under the direction of Dr. Nicholas Honerkamp, the Institute was contracted by the City to carry out this survey. On the left side of the Tennessee River the project area encompasses a 350 m by 10 m linear strip extending from the east bank of Citico Creek to an area of woods just west of a present pumping station; this latter area of low, marshy woods was also included in the survey. The area surveyed on the right side of the river consists of a 12 by 4 m parcel (see Figure 1 for general project vicinities). All areas have been extensively developed over the years. For 40HA65, destruction and disturbance of portions of the site have occurred from the construction of Riverside Drive, extensive mining for clay, construction of the Tennessee-American Water Company facilities, and a continuing series of looting episodes over more than a century. However, the exact boundaries of this site have never been firmly established, leaving open the possibility that intact remnants of the site exist within the project area. Given the long and tragic history of destruction and shoddy excavation at the Citico Site, any bit of evidence associated with the vanished mound and/or village would be an invaluable addition, and this consideration probably entered into the Historical Commission's survey recommendation. 40HA120 was defined exclusively on the basis of vague documentary information and never located on the ground, but it is indicated as being in the near vicinity of the project area. Equally vague is the southern boundary of 40HA210, which may be present in the small area slated for the sewer hookup.


Dept. of Social, Cultural, and Justice Studies


College of Arts and Sciences


University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Place of Publication

Chattanooga (Tenn.)




Archaeology -- Tennessee -- Hamilton County; Antiquities; Archaeology; Hamilton County (Tenn.) -- Antiquities


Chattanooga (Tenn.); Hamilton County (Tenn.)

Document Type



i, 19 leaves



Call Number

F444.C4 H66 1990


Archaeological research at 40HA65, Chattanooga, Tennessee