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The results of documentary research and archaeological survey and testing of the riverbank area at Fort Frederica National Monument, St. Simons Island, Georgia, are described. Carried out by the Jeffrey L. Brown Institute of Archaeology in August of 1983, the fieldwork consisted of a systematic transect survey, intensive hand excavation of judgementally placed test units, and excavation of a test trench to locate suspected earthworks. A combined total of 45.25 square meters of surface area was investigated using this approach. Survey and testing was necessitated by planned anti-erosion measures along the riverbank that will result in subsurface disturbances to the archaeological record. Materials recovered from 75 half-meter test pits and 5 test units that measured 2 x 2 m consisted of 6592 artifacts and 6824.5 g of bone; 15 interpretable features were identified. Artifact deposition and feature occurrence was found to be curtained primarily in a 30 m section of the project area. This same area shows evidence of extensive alteration and redeposition. Analysis of temporally-sensitive artifacts indicates that most of the ceramics were deposited in the last quarter of the 18th century through the first quarter of the 19th century. The documentary and archaeological data generated from this site were used to address research questions concerning the presence and condition of artifacts and features in the project area; definition of trash disposal behavior; definition of settlement patterning; patterning in colonial and postcolonial material culture; and the refinement of a model of coastal resource utilization. Direct comparisons with artifact assemblages from Frederica and other sites in the Southeast were mode in order to place the riverbank results in both a local and regional research perspective. Based on the results of the documentary research and fieldwork, it is concluded that the planned riverbank erosion control project will have no adverse impact on the archaeological record present in the project area. it is recommended, however, that any construction activities be monitored by a qualified archaeologist or trained National Park Service employee. Suggestions for future problem-oriented documentary end archaeological research at Frederica are offered.


Dept. of Social, Cultural, and Justice Studies


College of Arts and Sciences


University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Place of Publication

Chattanooga (Tenn.)




Archaeology -- Georgia -- Fort Frederica National Monument; Antiquities; Archaelology; Fort Frederica National Monument (Ga.) -- Antiquities


Fort Frederica National Monument (Ga.)

Document Type



v, 79 leaves



Call Number

F292.F7 H66 1985


On the waterfront : archaeological research at Fort Frederica National Monument, St. Simons Island, Georgia