Project Director

Harvey, Jamie

Department Examiner

Levine, David; Boer, Nicholas


Dept. of Health and Human Performance


University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Place of Publication

Chattanooga (Tenn.)


Objective: To systematically review the literature reporting on the development of patella luxation (PL) and to identify areas in need of research. Study Design: Systematic Literature Review Animals: Dogs with PL. Methods: A computer-based search was conducted through July 2016 using the following databases: PubMed, Agricola, and Web of Science. Studies were graded using the Oxford Centre of Evidence chart and categorized into one or more of the following categories: etiology and/or pathophysiology. Studies were excluded if they were not peer- reviewed, were not in the English or French language, dealt with a species other than dogs, were focused on surgical management, and/or were irrelevant to patella luxation. Results: Twenty-five out of 301 studies were included and reviewed. Breeds at greatest risk for PL are: Great Pyrenees, Pomeranian, Silky Terrier, Miniature Pincher, Chinese Shar-Pei Yorkshire Terriers, Chihuahuas, Miniature and Toy Poodles, and Boston Terriers. PL prevalence has recently increased in Labrador Retrievers. All studies reporting on more than one breed found that MPL is more common than LPL. Smaller dogs have an increased incidence than larger breeds. Even though medial PL is the most common directional luxation across all dog sizes, lateral PL prevalence increases as dog weight increases. Genetic research looks promising in a link between Chromosome 7 and PL in dogs. The relationship between PL and CCLR is still controversial along with results for unilateral and bilateral luxation. Discussion: When considering the owners, genetic studies that benefit breeding programs and research into the specific causes of PL will aid in preventing dogs bred with musculoskeletal abnormalities.


I would like to thank Dr. Levine for his constant, patient guidance and advice throughout this challenging project. My sincere thanks also goes to Dr. Marcellin-Little as well for providing his expertise in the veterinary field and inviting me to sit in on a dissection lab summer of 2015. To Beverly Kutz: your assistance setting up Endnote on my computer and recovering everything after an unfortunate crash was invaluable to this review. I would like to thank the rest of my research committee: Dr. Harvey and Dr. Boer for their unique perspectives on the subject and constant support throughout this process. To my roommates: as we all went through this process in varying forms, I would like to thank you all for your support and inspiration to succeed in this project. Last but not least, I would like to thank my family: you all constantly motivate and encourage me to succeed in everything I do. I would not be who I am today without each and every one of you.


B. A.; An honors thesis submitted to the faculty of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Bachelor of Arts.




Dogs -- Diseases


Dog; Patella luxation; Dislocation; Canine; Patellar dislocation; Stifle



Document Type



unnumbered leaves







Included in

Kinesiology Commons