Project Director

Tate, Jeremiah

Department Examiner

Peyer, Karissa


Dept. of Health and Human Performance


University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Place of Publication

Chattanooga (Tenn.)


Background: The influence of lower extremity structural alignment on foot progression angle (FPA) and toe-out angle (TOA) has been measured, however foot structure has not been included in this analysis. No studies to our knowledge have assessed the influence of lower quarter structure on standing toe-out angle or during dynamic tasks such as squatting. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the potential influence of longitudinal arch angle (LAA) and weight-bearing dorsiflexion in addition to passive hip internal rotation (HIR) and thigh foot angle (TFA) on the following activities: standing TOA, FPA (walking TOA), forward arm squat TOA, and barbell back squat TOA. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: A total of 37 participants (19 male; 18 female) who lacked a history of lower extremity injury were recruited from the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. Each participant reported a score of seven or greater on the Tegner activity scale and had previous experience with squatting tasks. The following measurements were taken for each participant: height, weight, hip internal rotation, thigh foot angle, longitudinal arch angle, weight-bearing dorsiflexion, hip width, static toe-out angle and stance width; toe-out angle, stance width and squat depth during a forward arm squat; toe-out angle, stance width and squat depth during a barbell back squat; standing hip height, and foot progression angle. Results: HIR exhibited a significant correlation with TOA/FPA in each of the four models: static stance TOA, FPA, forward arm squat TOA, and barbell back squat TOA. HIR alone explained 15% and 24% of the variance associated with standing TOA and FPA, respectively. HIR and TFA explained 25% of the variance associated with TOA in a forward arm squat. HIR, TFA, and LAA explained 43% of the variance associated with TOA in a barbell back squat. On average, participants exhibited a positive TOA and FPA. Furthermore, average stance width and TOA increased from standing TOA to forward arm squat TOA to barbell back squat TOA. Conclusion: HIR was the most consistent structural predictor for TOA and FPA. Thigh foot angle was influential during a forward arm and barbell back squat. LAA was only associated with TOA during a barbell back squat which may be explained by participants naturally preparing for a loaded movement. Ankle dorsiflexion does not appear to influence TOA/FPA. Clinical Relevance: This study provides data on a specific population of young adult athletes. It shows that a positive TOA and FPA is widely preferred among participants, and stance width and TOA adapts to the task performed. Foot arch height is not a predictor of TOA or FPA and does not need to be included in an analysis of FPA. Finally, due to the overwhelming preference of a positive TOA during squatting tasks, clinicians and researchers alike should consider having participants squat in a natural, preferred stance.

IRB Number



B. A.; An honors thesis submitted to the faculty of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Bachelor of Arts.




Foot -- Anatomy -- Research


Toe-out angle; Squats; Hip internal rotation; Longitudinal arch angle; Foot progression angle


Exercise Science

Document Type



45 leaves