Committee Chair

Tucker, John C.

Committee Member

Keller, Robert D.; Aborn, David


Dept. of Biology, Geology, and Environmental Science


College of Arts and Sciences


University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Place of Publication

Chattanooga (Tenn.)


On June 19, 2002, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) endorsed the Early Action Compact (EAC), a mechanism designed to aid potential nonattainment areas throughout the United States to comply with the new 8-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) set for ground-level ozone. Under the Compact, local areas will have the flexibility to design and implement ozone reduction control measures specific to the area's needs. The EAC will also defer nonattainment designation from April 15, 2004 to a date no later than December 31 , 2007. A nonattainment designation carries with it negative repercussions that affect the local economy and inhibit growth. Five major Tennessee metropolitan areas have chosen to enter into the EAC with state officials and the EPA. An examination of the EAC's various components was performed at both the local and regional level. Seven potential reduction control strategies proposed by the selected five metropolitan areas were chosen for comparison. A comparative analysis was performed based on cost effectiveness, feasibility of implementation, effectiveness in reducing ozone precursor compounds, and identification of population groups targeted by each strategy. Results indicate that each strategy has the potential to offer considerable benefits depending on the local area's needs, capabilities, and primary emission sources of ozone precursor compounds. Due to variability in the types of sources that emit ozone precursor compounds, fluctuations in local meteorological conditions, and scientific uncertainty associated with ozone formation, it is suggested that multiple reduction strategies be implemented to reduce ground-level ozone formation. Thus far, data reporting protocols and reduction model estimates have been inconsistent and highly variable, placing doubt on the effectiveness of any single control strategy. The EPA needs to establish a uniform system of data reporting to allow actual source sub-category emissions to be compared to past modeling projections. A uniform system would enable researchers to determine whether a single reduction strategy is capable ofreducing an area's actual ozone concentration to a level predicted by future modeling techniques. Officials can then better protect local communities from the negative health effects associated with ozone exposure, as required by NAAQS. Through compromise, the EAC allows local areas to avoid economic and growth restrictions while allowing local stakeholders the ability to design and implement feasible reduction strategies. The EAC is a beneficial tool that facilitates this compromise between an immediate nonattainment designation and local area compliance with federal ground-level ozone NAAQS. Ultimate success of the EAC, however, will not be determined until December 2007, at which time all compact areas are scheduled to be in compliance with the 8-hour NAAQS set for ground-level ozone. If this goal is not achieved, the EAC has merely prolonged the implementation of federal control measures and delayed the enforcement of corrective actions, including Transportation Conformity and New Source Review.


I wish to thank all of those who have helped me in the completion of this thesis study and the completion of my Master of Science degree in Environmental Science from The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. I would first like to offer an extended thanks to my thesis committee for their time and effort in the writing and revisions process necessary to complete this thesis manuscript. I would like to thank John Tucker, LL.M., for his continued support, supervision, and expertise on this thesis topic and for his personal guidance on pursuing a career in Environmental Law. I would like to thank Robert Keller, Ph.D. for his guidance and expertise on this thesis topic and for allowing me the opportunity to further develop my professional skills through a research assistantship. I would like to thank David Abom, Ph.D. for his guidance, expertise, and professional opinion on this thesis topic. I would like to thank Ms. Maya Belka for offering her critique and suggestions during the writing and revisions process of this manuscript. I would like to further thank the office staff and department head of the Biological and Environmental Sciences Department at UTC for their continued support. This includes Marketa Shutters, Virginia Cole, Becky Bell, and Charles Nelson, Ph.D. Last, I would like to thank the staff of the various regulatory agencies with which I have conversed to ensure the accuracy of data and the quality of this project. I would especially like to thank Errol Reksten of the Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau for sharing his professional expertise and knowledge of the Early Action Compact processes undertaken by Chattanooga, TN, an essential component of this thesis study.


M. S.; A thesis submitted to the faculty of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Science.




Ozone layer depletion--Law and legislation


Environmental Health and Protection

Document Type

Masters theses




ix, 146 leaves



Call Number

LB2369.2 .H394 2005