Committee Chair

Cunningham, James C

Committee Member

Henry, James; Bailey, Rob; Clevenger, Wendy


Dept. of Engineering


College of Engineering and Computer Science


University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Place of Publication

Chattanooga (Tenn.)


This thesis investigates the suitability of a lead-contaminated Brownfield, the Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant (VAAP) site in Chattanooga, for recreational use such as children's softball. The assessment includes a review of soil sample data obtained at the VAAP by IT Corporation from 1994 to 1999, particulate monitoring of softball activities at Warner Park by the author in 1999-2000, and determination of the fate and transport of lead contamination in the soil. The fate and transport were evaluated using EPA's Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model for children under 7 years of age. The adult effects were calculated using an EPA Preliminary Remediation Goal spreadsheet which was modified to predict blood lead levels (PbB). Lead concentration was modeled assuming thorough mixing of the surficial soil during site preparation activities. Consideration was given to the frequency of activities and transfer of dust to the home. The lead content, as reported, was found to create an unacceptable risk of excessive blood lead levels in the juvenile population. The IEUBK model was also used to predict soil concentration goals for lead remediation. The lead soil concentration goals were determined based on the statistical probability of a fraction of the population having PbB levels greater than 10 μg/dl. For five percent of the population having a PbB greater than 10 μg/dl, the lead concentration in the soil should be less than 800 ppm. If the soil concentration was lowered to less than 400 ppm, only one percent of the population would be predicted to have a PbB greater than 10 μg/dl.


I would like to acknowledge the faculty of the Engineering Department at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga for their guidance and support throughout my college experience. Ors. Cunningham and Henry helped to make my undergraduate experience enjoyable and professionally. The summer work projects were a useful learning experience; the bum assessment project on which I assisted Ors. Cunningham, Henry, and Knight was especially useful for the thesis project. In my graduate work, Ors. Cunningham and Bailey have been a great source of information and assistance. I appreciate the help given by Mr. Richard Twitchell at the Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant who suggested research into the high lead concentrations at the CFI Lease Area. Mr.Twitchell also introduced me to Mr. Steve Muffler with IT Corporation. Mr. Muffler provided the data from IT orporation's sampling events and site maps for my review and study. Mr. Bob Elmore at the V AAP allowed me to borrow and review copies of the previous site evaluations. The Chattanooga Hamilton County Air Pollution Bureau assisted through the loan of the particulate monitoring equipment required for my field work, and their personnel (Kathy Jones, Ben Morgan, and Steve Langston) assisted me in the set-up of the equipment. I would like to thank Mr. Rick Austin and Mr.Snooks Narren with the City of Chattanooga Parks and Recreation Department for allowing me access to Warner Park for air monitoring during recreational events. I would also like to thank Ms. Colleen Russell for her editorial comments and Mr. Mike Dickey for his autocad assistance. Most of all, I would most like to thank my husband, Mark E. Koss, for his support, encouragement, and patience. Without him, the completion of this thesis would not have been possible.


M. S.; A thesis submitted to the faculty of the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Science.




Soils--Lead content; Soil pollution--Tennessee--Chattanooga; Children--Health risk assessment; Environmental risk assessment


Risk Analysis

Document Type

Masters theses




xiii, 89 leaves



Call Number

LB2369.2 .K677 2000


Included in

Risk Analysis Commons